To implement a spirometry-based chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) screening in a community pharmacy chain, determine whether pharmacists can accurately perform spirometry screenings and interpret results, and determine whether performing screenings improved enrollment in smoking cessation programs.
Kroger pharmacies in the Cincinnati–Dayton Kroger Marketing Area and off-site screening events in Cincinnati, OH, from March to December 2010.
Consenting individuals older than 35 years who met inclusion and exclusion criteria.
Specially trained community pharmacists administered a validated COPD screening questionnaire and performed spirometry. The results were interpreted, given to the patient, and faxed to the primary care physician. Any patient who was currently smoking was offered smoking cessation counseling.
Main outcome measures
Spirometry technical quality and interpretation accuracy, screening questionnaire scores in relationship to spirometry results, number of patients enrolled in smoking cessation programs.
Of the 185 patients, 10 were excluded due to inability to perform spirometry. After review, 174 (99%) of the spirometries were judged acceptable and 157 (90%) demonstrated reproducible results. The mean (±SD) score on the COPD Population Screener questionnaire was 2.3 ± 1.6 (range 0–8). Airflow limitation (defined as forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity < lower limit of normal) was detected in 16 (9%) of the patients. Although 12 (75%) of these patients were former or current smokers, only 3 (19%) were at increased risk for COPD based on their screening questionnaire scores. Of the nine current smokers who participated in a follow-up interview, two had successfully abstained from smoking for 6 months after the screening and five others had made an attempt to quit.
This study demonstrated that pharmacists are able to perform accurate and reproducible spirometry in a community pharmacy setting.