0
Research Notes
Impact of a pharmacist immunizer on adult immunization rates
Suzanne Higginbotham, BS, PharmD, BCACP; Autumn Stewart, PharmD, BCACP; Andrea Pfalzgraf, MPH, PhD
J Am Pharm Assoc (2003) 2012;52:367-371. doi:10.1331/JAPhA.2012.10083

Abstract

Objectives  To describe the immunization needs of indigent community-dwelling patients from a primary care center for the medically underserved, evaluate the impact of a pharmacist immunizer on vaccination rates of adults presenting for care, and evaluate the impact of a pharmacist immunizer on the percent of adult patients who are current on immunizations.

Methods  Prospective, controlled, parallel study among patients aged 18 to 79 years presenting for a medical appointment at a primary health care center located in a metropolitan area and providing care to the medically underserved. An immunization needs assessment (INA) was used to identify patients not current on adult immunizations. The intervention group received an offer to be immunized by a pharmacist using the results from the INA. Vaccination rates and percent of patients current on vaccinations were obtained using electronic medical records.

Results  Of 101 participants, 82 (81.2%) needed at least one immunization. The availability of a pharmacist immunizer had a significant impact on the number of patients who were current on all immunizations at the completion of the study. The combination of the INA by a pharmacist demonstrated a significant effect on influenza and tetanus–diphtheria–acellular pertussis vaccination rates. The use of an identical tool by other health care providers did not have an impact on individual vaccine rates or the likelihood of patients being brought current on vaccinations.

Conclusion  A dedicated pharmacist immunizer embedded in an indigent care primary health care clinic had a significant impact on increasing adult immunization rates and bringing patients current on vaccinations.

Sign In
APhA Members 
Welcome to JAPhA.org! Please log in below using your APhA username and password. Update your APhA profile.
Not a Subscriber
New to JAPhA? Become an APhA member to receive a full subscription to both the print and online editions.

OR

Register for a FREE limited account to benefit from personalization features such as alerts.

References

Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, Trust for America's Health, Infectious Diseases Society of America. Adult immunizations: shots to save lives. Accessed at http://healthyamericans.org/assets/files/TFAH2010AdultImmnzBrief13.pdf, May 7,  2010.
 
National Foundation for Infectious Disease. Saving lives: integrating vaccines for adults into routine care. Accessed at www.nfid.org/pdf/publications/adultimmcta.pdf, May 7,  2010.
 
 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Vaccination coverage estimates from the National Health Interview Survey: United States, 2008. Atlanta, GA:  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention;  2009.
 
Armstrong K, Berlin M, Schwartz JS, et al. Barriers to influenza immunization in a low-income urban population. Am J Prev Med. 2001;20:21–5.[CrossRef]
 
Zimmerman RK, Nowalk MP, Raymund M, et al. Tailored interventions to increase influenza vaccination in neighborhood health centers serving the disadvantaged. Am J Public Health. 2003;93:1699–705.[CrossRef]
 
Johnson DR, Nichol KL, Lipczynski K. Barriers to adult immunization. Am J Med. 2008;121(suppl 2):S28–35.[CrossRef]
 
 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Adult immunization programs in non-traditional settings: quality standards and guidance for program evaluation: a report of the National Vaccine Advisory Committee and use of standing orders programs to increase adult vaccination rates: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2000;49(RR01):15–26.
 
Savino L. Your pharmacy and immunizations. America's Pharmacist. 1998;120:47–53.
 
Madhaven SS, Rosenbluth SA, Amonkar M, et al. Pharmacists and immunizations. a national survey. J Am Pharm Assoc. 2001;41:32–45.
 
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Adolescent and adult vaccination quiz. Accessed at www2.cdc.gov/nip/adultimmsched, April 9,  2012.
 
NOTE:
Citing articles are presented as examples only. In non-demo SCM6 implementation, integration with CrossRef’s "Cited By" API will populate this tab (http://www.crossref.org/citedby.html).
Please read the other comments before you post yours. Comments are moderated and will appear on the site at the discertion of the editorial staff.
* = Required Field
(if multiple authors, separate names by comma)
Example: John Doe



Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.

JAPhA Articles
Topic Collections
PubMed Articles
Advertisement
 
  • Print
  • PDF Download
  • Email
  • Share
  • Get Citation
  • Submit Comment
  • Article Alerts
    Please Wait... Processing your request... Please Wait.
    You must sign in to sign-up for alerts.

    Please confirm that your email address is correct, so you can successfully receive this alert.

  • Letters To Editor
  • Reprints