Translating clinical guidelines into clinical practice: Role of the pharmacist in type 2 diabetes management
Scott Drab, PharmD, CDE, BC-ADM
J Am Pharm Assoc (2003) 2009;49:e152-e162. doi:10.1331/JAPhA.2009.08181


Objectives  To examine the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and American College of Endocrinology (ACE)/American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) diabetes guidelines and identify key areas for increased pharmacist involvement to allow more effective implementation of target glycemic goals.

Data sources  Guidelines issued by ADA and ACE/AACE; PubMed searches were performed to identify additional data.

Study selection  Free text searches were performed to identify recent (2000–2008) therapy reviews in the management of type 2 diabetes, as well as articles on specific issues such as telemedicine, self-measurement of blood glucose, and overcoming barriers to treatment. To explore the role of insulin in managing type 2 diabetes, clinical trials involving insulins and insulin analogs in type 2 diabetes were identified using a PubMed search with the Mesh terms insulin or analogs and derivatives plus diabetes mellitus, type 2 and restricted to those published after 2000. The pharmacist's role in the treatment of type 2 diabetes was explored in PubMed using the Mesh terms pharmacists[Majr] and diabetes mellitus, type 2/therapy, and free text searches were also performed using the terms patient education, pharmacist, and type 2 diabetes.

Data extraction  By the author.

Data synthesis  The increasing burden of type 2 diabetes highlights the need for tight glycemic control in line with current guidelines and the timely introduction of insulin. Pharmacists have a crucial role in achieving these goals, as they are ideally placed to educate patients about the acceptability of treatment, the importance of self-management, the availability of new technologies and delivery devices, and the need for treatment intensification to achieve glycosylated hemoglobin (A1C) targets.

Conclusion  Pharmacists play a crucial role in helping patients with type 2 diabetes achieve the A1C targets recommended by ADA and ACE/AACE and thereby improve their long-term health.

Sign In
APhA Members 
Welcome to JAPhA.org! Please log in below using your APhA username and password. Update your APhA profile.
Not a Subscriber
New to JAPhA? Become an APhA member to receive a full subscription to both the print and online editions.


Register for a FREE limited account to benefit from personalization features such as alerts.


 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National diabetes fact sheet: United States 2007 Accessed at www.cdc.gov/diabetes/pubs/pdf/ndfs_2007.pdf, October 15,  2008.
 UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) Group. Intensive blood-glucose control with sulphonylureas or insulin compared with conventional treatment and risk of complications in patients with type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 33) Lancet. 1998;352:837–53.[PubMed][CrossRef]
Aronoff SL, Berkowitz K, Shreiner B, Want L. Glucose metabolism and regulation: Beyond insulin and glucagon Diabetes Spectrum. 2004;17:183–90.
Ferrannini E. Insulin resistance versus insulin deficiency in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: Problems and prospects Endocr Rev. 1998;19:477–90.[PubMed]
Rahman S, Rahman T, Ismail AA, Rashid AR. Diabetes-associated macrovasculopathy: Pathophysiology and pathogenesis Diabetes Obes Metab. 2007;9:767–80.[PubMed]
Varughese GI, Tomson J, Lip GY. Type 2 diabetes mellitus: A cardiovascular perspective Int J Clin Pract. 2005;59:798–816.[PubMed]
Chaturvedi N. The burden of diabetes and its complications: Trends and implications for intervention Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2007;76(suppl 1):S3–12.[PubMed]
 The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial Research Group. The effect of intensive treatment of diabetes on the development and progression of long-term complications in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus N Engl J Med. 1993;329:977–86.[PubMed]
 UKProspective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) Group. Effect of intensive blood-glucose control with metformin on complications in overweight patients with type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 34) Lancet. 1998;352:854–65.[PubMed]
Ohkubo Y, Kishikawa H, Araki E, et al. Intensive insulin therapy prevents the progression of diabetic microvascular complications in Japanese patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: A randomized prospective 6-year study Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 1995;28:103–17.[PubMed]
Patel A, MacMahon S, Chalmers J, et al. Intensive blood glucose control and vascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes N Engl J Med. 2008;358:2560–72.[PubMed]
 IDF Clinical Guidelines Task Force. Global guideline for type 2 diabetes: Recommendations for standard, comprehensive, and minimal care Diabet Med. 2006;23:579–93.[PubMed]
Rodbard HW, Blonde L, Braithwaite SS, et al. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists medical guidelines for clinical practice for the management of diabetes mellitus Endocr Pract. 2007;13(suppl 1):1–68.[PubMed]
 American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes–2009 Diabetes Care. 2009;32:S13–61.[PubMed]
 American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists. AACE medical guidelines for clinical practice for the management of diabetes mellitus Accessed at www.aace.com/pub/guidelines, October 15,  2008.
Ohkubo Y, Kishikawa H, Araki E, et al. Intensive insulin therapy prevents the progression of diabetic microvascular complications in Japanese patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: A randomized prospective 6-year study Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 1995;28:103–17.[PubMed]
Gerstein HC, Miller ME, Byington RP,et al. Effects of intensive glucose lowering in type 2 diabetes N Engl J Med. 2008;358:2545–59.[PubMed]
Patel A, MacMahon S, Chalmers J, et al. Intensive blood glucose control and vascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes N Engl J Med. 2008;358:2560–72.[PubMed]
Duckworth W, Abraira C, Moritz T, et al. Glucose control and vascular complications in veterans with type 2 diabetes N Engl J Med. 2009;360:129–39.[PubMed]
Larme AC, Pugh JA. Evidence-based guidelines meet the real world: The case of diabetes care Diabetes Care. 2001;24:1728–33.[PubMed]
Francke AL, Smit MC, de Veer AJ, Mistiaen P. Factors influencing the implementation of clinical guidelines for health care professionals: A systematic meta-review BMC Med Inform Decis Mak. 2008;8:38.[PubMed]
Chin MH, Cook S, Jin L, et al. Barriers to providing diabetes care in community health centers Diabetes Care. 2001;24:268–74.[PubMed]
Bell RA, Camacho F, Duran-Winfield VT, et al. Improving diabetes care among low-income North Carolinians: Project IDEAL N C Med J. 2005;66:96–102.[PubMed]
Schachter KA, Cohen SJ. From research to practice: Challenges to implementing national diabetes guidelines with five community health centers on the U.S.-Mexico border Prev Chronic Dis. 2005;2(1):A17.
Davis DA, Taylor-Vaisey A. Translating guidelines into practice: A systematic review of theoretic concepts, practical experience and research evidence in the adoption of clinical practice guidelines CMAJ. 1997;157:408–16.[PubMed]
Koro CE, Bowlin SJ, Bourgeois N, Fedder DO. Glycemic control from 1988 to 2000 among U.S. adults diagnosed with type 2 diabetes: A preliminary report Diabetes Care. 2004;27:17–20.[PubMed]
Ford ES, Li C, Little RR, Mokdad AH. Trends in A1C concentrations among U.S. adults with diagnosed diabetes from 1999 to 2004 Diabetes Care. 2008;31:102–4.[PubMed]
Brown JB, Nichols GA, Perry A. The burden of treatment failure in type 2 diabetes Diabetes Care. 2004;27:1535–40.[PubMed]
 Dailey GE 3rd. Early insulin: An important therapeutic strategy Diabetes Care. 2005;28:220–1.[PubMed]
Kroon LA, Coleman LT, Koda-Kimble MA. The management of type 2 diabetes mellitus: A call to action for pharmacists US Pharmacist. 1997;suppl 1:1–18.
Burke JM, Miller WA, Spencer AP, et al. Clinical pharmacist competencies Pharmacotherapy. 2008;28:806–15.[PubMed]
Coast-Senior EA, Kroner BA, Kelley CL, Trilli LE. Management of patients with type 2 diabetes by pharmacists in primary care clinics Ann Pharmacother. 1998;32:636–41.[PubMed]
Irons BK, Lenz RJ, Anderson SL, et al. A retrospective cohort analysis of the clinical effectiveness of a physician-pharmacist collaborative drug therapy management diabetes clinic Pharmacotherapy. 2002;22:1294–300.[PubMed]
Jaber LA, Halapy H, Fernet M, et al. Evaluation of a pharmaceutical care model on diabetes management Ann Pharmacother. 1996;30:238–43.[PubMed]
Kiel PJ, McCord AD. Pharmacist impact on clinical outcomes in a diabetes disease management program via collaborative practice Ann Pharmacother. 2005;39:1828–32.[PubMed]
McCord AD. Clinical impact of a pharmacist-managed diabetes mellitus drug therapy management service Pharmacotherapy. 2006;26:248–53.[PubMed]
Morello CM, Zadvorny EB, Cording MA, et al. Development and clinical outcomes of pharmacist-managed diabetes care clinics Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2006;63:1325–31.[PubMed]
Ragucci KR, Fermo JD, Wessell AM, Chumney EC. Effectiveness of pharmacist-administered diabetes mellitus education and management services Pharmacotherapy. 2005;25:1809–16.[PubMed]
Cranor CW, Christensen DB. The Asheville Project: Factors associated with outcomes of a community pharmacy diabetes care program J Am Pharm Assoc. 2003;43:160–72.
Fera T, Bluml BM, Ellis WM, et al. The Diabetes Ten City Challenge: Interim clinical and humanistic outcomes of a multisite community pharmacy diabetes care program J Am Pharm Assoc. 2008;48:181–90.
Daly A, Kulkarni K, Boucher J. The new credential: Advanced diabetes management J Am Diet Assoc. 2000;101:944–6.
Funnell MM. Overcoming obstacles: Collaboration for change Eur J Endocrinol. 2004;151(suppl 2):T19–22; discussion T29–30.[PubMed]
Peyrot M, Rubin RR, Lauritzen T, et al. Resistance to insulin therapy among patients and providers: Results of the cross-national Diabetes Attitudes, Wishes, and Needs (DAWN) study Diabetes Care. 2005;28:2673–9.[PubMed]
Guerci B, Drouin P, Grange V, et al. Self-monitoring of blood glucose significantly improves metabolic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: The Auto-Surveillance Intervention Active (ASIA) study Diabetes Metab. 2003;29:587–94.[PubMed]
Murata GH, Shah JH, Hoffman RM, et al. Intensified blood glucose monitoring improves glycemic control in stable, insulin-treated veterans with type 2 diabetes: The Diabetes Outcomes in Veterans Study (DOVES) Diabetes Care. 2003;26:1759–63.[PubMed]
Kennedy L, Herman WH, Strange P, Harris A. Impact of active versus usual algorithmic titration of basal insulin and point-of-care versus laboratory measurement of HbA1c on glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes: the Glycemic Optimization with Algorithms and Labs at Point of Care (GOAL A1C) trial Diabetes Care. 2006;29:1–8.[PubMed]
Nathan DM, Kuenen J, Borg R, et al. Translating the A1C assay into estimated average glucose values Diabetes Care. 2008;31:1473–8.[PubMed]
Warren RE. The stepwise approach to the management of type 2 diabetes Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2004;65(suppl 1):S3–8.[PubMed]
Nathan DM, Buse JB, Davidson MB, et al. Medical management of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes: A consensus algorithm for the initiation and adjustment of therapy Diabetes Care. 2009;32:193–203.[PubMed]
 ACE/AACE Diabetes Road Map Task Force. Road map to achieve glycemic goals: Naïve to therapy (type 2) Accessed at www.aace.com/pub/roadmap, October 15,  2008.
Hirsch IB, Bergenstal RM, Parkin CG, et al. A real-world approach to insulin therapy in primary care practice Clin Diabetes. 2005;23(2):78–86.
Schwartz S, Sievers R, Strange P, et al. Insulin 70/30 mix plus metformin versus triple oral therapy in the treatment of type 2 diabetes after failure of two oral drugs: Efficacy, safety, and cost analysis Diabetes Care. 2003;26:2238–43.[PubMed]
Eldor R, Stern E, Milicevic Z, Raz I. Early use of insulin in type 2 diabetes Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2005;68(suppl 1):S30–5.[PubMed]
Marre M. Before oral agents fail: The case for starting insulin early Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2002;26(suppl 3):S25–30.[PubMed]
Mooradian AD, Bernbaum M, Albert SG. Narrative review: A rational approach to starting insulin therapy Ann Intern Med. 2006;145:125–34.[PubMed]
Home P, Kurtzhals P. Insulin detemir: From concept to clinical experience Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2006;7:325–43.[PubMed]
Oiknine R, Bernbaum M, Mooradian AD. A critical appraisal of the role of insulin analogues in the management of diabetes mellitus Drugs. 2005;65:325–40.[PubMed]
 NovoMedLink. Clinical information about Novolog Accessed at www.novomedlink.com/products/NovoLog/clinical.aspx, October 15,  2008.
Hirsch IB. Insulin analogues N Engl J Med. 2005;352:174–83.[PubMed]
 Sanofi-aventis. OptiClik Accessed at www.opticlik.com, October 15,  2008.
 American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Insulin lispro SubQ. In: AHFS Drug Information. Bethesda, MD:  American Society of Health-System Pharmacists;  2007.
Plank J, Bodenlenz M, Sinner F, et al. A double-blind, randomized, dose-response study investigating the pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties of the long-acting insulin analog detemir Diabetes Care. 2005;28:1107–12.[PubMed]
Gerich JE. Insulin glargine: Long-acting basal insulin analog for improved metabolic control Curr Med Res Opin. 2004;20:31–7.[PubMed]
 Novo Nordisk. NovoLog Mix 70/30 prescribing information Accessed at www.novologmix70-30.com/NovoLogMix7030_PI.pdf, July 1,  2009.
Eli Lilly & Co, Inc. Humalog Mix 50/50 prescribing information Accessed at http://pi.lilly.com/us/humalog5050-pi.pdf, July 1,  2009.
Eli Lilly & Co, Inc. Humalog Mix 75/25 prescribing information Accessed at http://pi.lilly.com/us/humalog7525-pi.pdf, July 1,  2009.
Gerich JE. Novel insulins: Expanding options in diabetes management Am J Med. 2002;113:308–16.[PubMed]
Heinemann L. Overcoming obstacles: New management options Eur J Endocrinol. 2004;151(suppl 2):T23–7; discussion T29–30.[PubMed]
Garber AJ. Premixed insulin analogues for the treatment of diabetes mellitus Drugs. 2006;66:31–49.[PubMed]
Garber AJ, Wahlen J, Wahl T, et al. Attainment of glycaemic goals in type 2 diabetes with once-, twice-, or thrice-daily dosing with biphasic insulin aspart 70/30 (the 1–2-3 study) Diabetes Obes Metab. 2006;8:58–66.[PubMed]
Boehm BO, Home PD, Behrend C, et al. Premixed insulin aspart 30 vs. premixed human insulin 30/70 twice daily: A randomized trial in type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients Diabet Med. 2002;19:393–9.[PubMed]
McSorley PT, Bell PM, Jacobsen LV, et al. Twice-daily biphasic insulin aspart 30 versus biphasic human insulin 30: A double-blind crossover study in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus Clin Ther. 2002;24:530–9.[PubMed]
Roach P, Trautmann M, Arora V, et al. Improved postprandial blood glucose control and reduced nocturnal hypoglycemia during treatment with two novel insulin lispro-protamine formulations, insulin lispro mix25 and insulin lispro mix50: Mix50 Study Group Clin Ther. 1999;21:523–34.[PubMed]
Schmoelzer I, de Campo A, Pressl H, et al. Biphasic insulin aspart compared to biphasic human insulin reduces postprandial hyperlipidemia in patients with type 2 diabetes Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2005;113:176–81.[PubMed]
Hermansen K, Colombo M, Storgaard H, et al. Improved postprandial glycemic control with biphasic insulin aspart relative to biphasic insulin lispro and biphasic human insulin in patients with type 2 diabetes Diabetes Care. 2002;25:883–8.[PubMed]
Meneghini L, Koenen C, Weng W, Selam JL. The usage of a simplified self-titration dosing guideline (303 Algorithm) for insulin detemir in patients with type 2 diabetes: Results of the randomized, controlled PREDICTIVE 303 study Diabetes Obes Metab. 2007;9:902–13.[PubMed]
Selam JL, Koenen C, Weng W, Meneghini L. Improving glycemic control with insulin detemir using the 303 Algorithm in insulin naive patients with type 2 diabetes: A subgroup analysis of the US PREDICTIVE 303 study Curr Med Res Opin. 2008;24:11–20.[PubMed]
Raskin P, Allen E, Hollander P, et al. Initiating insulin therapy in type 2 diabetes: A comparison of biphasic and basal insulin analogs Diabetes Care. 2005;28:260–5.[PubMed]
Gaede P, Lund-Andersen H, Parving HH, Pedersen O. Effect of a multifactorial intervention on mortality in type 2 diabetes N Engl J Med. 2008;358:580–91.[PubMed]
Gerstein HC, Miller ME, Byington RP, et al. Effects of intensive glucose lowering in type 2 diabetes N Engl J Med. 2008;358:2545–59.[PubMed]
Riddle MC, Rosenstock J, Gerich J. The treat-to-target trial: Randomized addition of glargine or human NPH insulin to oral therapy of type 2 diabetic patients Diabetes Care. 2003;26:3080–6.[PubMed]
Flood TM. Appropriate use of insulin analogs in an increasingly complex type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) landscape J Fam Pract. 2007;56(1 suppl):S1–10.[PubMed]
Hermansen K, Davies M, Derezinski T, et al. A 26-week, randomized, parallel, treat-to-target trial comparing insulin detemir with NPH insulin as add-on therapy to oral glucose-lowering drugs in insulin-naive people with type 2 diabetes Diabetes Care. 2006;29:1269–74.[PubMed]
Rosenstock J, Schwartz SL, Clark CM Jr, et al. Basal insulin therapy in type 2 diabetes: 28-week comparison of insulin glargine (HOE 901) and NPH insulin Diabetes Care. 2001;24:631–6.[PubMed]
Korytkowski M, Niskanen L, Asakura T. FlexPen: Addressing issues of confidence and convenience in insulin delivery Clin Ther. 2005;27(suppl B):S89–100.[PubMed]
Korytkowski M, Bell D, Jacobsen C, Suwannasari R. A multicenter, randomized, open-label, comparative, two-period crossover trial of preference, efficacy, and safety profiles of a prefilled, disposable pen and conventional vial/syringe for insulin injection in patients with type 1 or 2 diabetes mellitus Clin Ther. 2003;25:2836–48.[PubMed]
Funnell MM, Kruger DF, Spencer M. Self-management support for insulin therapy in type 2 diabetes Diabetes Educ. 2004;30:274–80.[PubMed]
Korytkowski M. When oral agents fail: Practical barriers to starting insulin Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2002;26(suppl 3):S18–24.[PubMed]
Rubin RR, Peyrot M. Psychological issues and treatments for people with diabetes J Clin Psychol. 2001;57:457–78.[PubMed]
Bretzel RG, Arnolds S, Medding J, Linn T. A direct efficacy and safety comparison of insulin aspart, human soluble insulin, and human premix insulin (70/30) in patients with type 2 diabetes Diabetes Care. 2004;27:1023–7.[PubMed]
Dornhorst A, Luddeke HJ, Koenen C, et al. Transferring to insulin detemir from NPH insulin or insulin glargine in type 2 diabetes patients on basal-only therapy with oral antidiabetic drugs improves glycaemic control and reduces weight gain and risk of hypoglycaemia: 14-week follow-up data from PREDICTIVE Diabetes Obes Metab. 2008;10:75–81.[PubMed]
Nathan DM, Buse JB, Davidson MB, et al. Management of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes: a consensus algorithm for the initiation and adjustment of therapy: A consensus statement from the American Diabetes Association and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes Diabetes Care. 2006;29:1963–72.[PubMed]
Raslova K, Bogoev M, Raz I, et al. Insulin detemir and insulin aspart: A promising basal-bolus regimen for type 2 diabetes Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2004;66:193–201.[PubMed]
Rosenstock J, Dailey G, Massi-Benedetti M, et al. Reduced hypoglycemia risk with insulin glargine: A meta-analysis comparing insulin glargine with human NPH insulin in type 2 diabetes Diabetes Care. 2005;28:950–5.[PubMed]
Dornhorst A, Luddeke HJ, Sreenan S, et al. Safety and efficacy of insulin detemir in clinical practice: 14-week follow-up data from type 1 and type 2 diabetes patients in the PREDICTIVE European cohort Int J Clin Pract. 2007;61:523–8.[PubMed]
Rosenstock J, Davies M, Home PD, et al. A randomised, 52-week, treat-to-target trial comparing insulin detemir with insulin glargine when administered as add-on to glucose-lowering drugs in insulin-naive people with type 2 diabetes Diabetologia. 2008;51:408–16.[PubMed]
Bazzano LA, Lee LJ, Shi L, et al. Safety and efficacy of glargine compared with NPH insulin for the treatment of type 2 diabetes: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials Diabet Med. 2008;25:924–32.[PubMed]
Tanenberg R, Bode B, Lane W, et al. Use of the continuous glucose monitoring system to guide therapy in patients with insulin-treated diabetes: A randomized controlled trial Mayo Clin Proc. 2004;79:1521–6.[PubMed]
Chetty VT, Almulla A, Odueyungbo A, Thabane L. The effect of continuous subcutaneous glucose monitoring (CGMS) versus intermittent whole blood finger-stick glucose monitoring (SBGM) on hemoglobin A1c (HBA1c) levels in type I diabetic patients: A systematic review Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2008;81:79–87.[PubMed]
Tamborlane WV, Beck RW, Bode BW, et al. Continuous glucose monitoring and intensive treatment of type 1 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2008;359:1464–76.
 ECRI Institute, Health Technology Assessment Information Service. TARGET database: real-time continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). TARGET report 896. Plymouth Meeting, PA:  ECRI Institute;  2007.
Klonoff DC. Diabetes and telemedicine: Is the technology sound, effective, cost-effective, and practical? Diabetes Care. 2003;26:1626–8.[PubMed]
Laffel LM, Hsu WC, McGill JB, et al. Continued use of an integrated meter with electronic logbook maintains improvements in glycemic control beyond a randomized, controlled trial Diabetes Technol Ther. 2007;9:254–64.[PubMed]
Shea S, Weinstock RS, Starren J, et al. A randomized trial comparing telemedicine case management with usual care in older, ethnically diverse, medically underserved patients with diabetes mellitus J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2006;13:40–51.[PubMed]
Shea S, Weinstock RS, Teresi JA, et al. A randomized trial comparing telemedicine case management with usual care in older, ethnically diverse, medically underserved patients with diabetes mellitus: 5 year results of the IDEATel study J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2009;16:446–56.[PubMed]
Chase HP, Pearson JA, Wightman C. Modem transmission of glucose values reduces the costs and need for clinic visits Diabetes Care. 2003;26:1475–9.[PubMed]
Lee WC, Balu S, Cobden D, et al. Medication adherence and the associated health-economic impact among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus converting to insulin pen therapy: An analysis of third-party managed care claims data Clin Ther. 2006;28:1712–25; discussion 1710–1.[PubMed]
Bode BW. Use of rapid-acting insulin analogues in the treatment of patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus: Insulin pump therapy versus multiple daily injections Clin Ther. 2007;29(suppl D):S135–44.[PubMed]
Jeitler K, Horvath K, Berghold A, et al. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion versus multiple daily insulin injections in patients with diabetes mellitus: Systematic review and meta-analysis Diabetologia. 2008;51:941–51.[PubMed]
Raskin P, Bode BW, Marks JB, et al. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion and multiple daily injection therapy are equally effective in type 2 diabetes: A randomized, parallel-group, 24-week study Diabetes Care. 2003;26:2598–603.[PubMed]
Citing articles are presented as examples only. In non-demo SCM6 implementation, integration with CrossRef’s "Cited By" API will populate this tab (http://www.crossref.org/citedby.html).
Please read the other comments before you post yours. Comments are moderated and will appear on the site at the discertion of the editorial staff.
* = Required Field
(if multiple authors, separate names by comma)
Example: John Doe

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.

JAPhA Articles
Topic Collections
PubMed Articles
  • Print
  • PDF Download
  • Email
  • Share
  • Get Citation
  • Submit Comment
  • Article Alerts
    Please Wait... Processing your request... Please Wait.
    You must sign in to sign-up for alerts.

    Please confirm that your email address is correct, so you can successfully receive this alert.

  • Letters To Editor
  • Reprints