Pharmacy stages of involvement in pharmacy-based immunization services: Results from a 17-state survey
Salisa C. Westrick, PhD; Jeanine K. Mount, PhD, BPharm; Suntaree Watcharadamrongkun, MS; Michelle L. Breland, MEd
J Am Pharm Assoc (2003) 2008;48:764-773. doi:10.1331/JAPhA.2008.07118


Objectives  To describe pharmacy stages of involvement in outsourced and in-house immunization services and to explore the variability of stages of involvement across the sampled states.

Design  Cross-sectional study.

Setting  Community pharmacies in 17 states, between July 2005 and February 2006.

Participants  Key informants of 2,558 community pharmacies.

Intervention  Computer-assisted telephone interviews regarding pharmacy involvement in immunization services.

Main outcome measure  Pharmacies' stage of involvement in immunization services, based on the following categories: no interest; interested, no plan; planning; implemented; discontinued; and no response.

Results  Of 2,558 community pharmacies, 1,707 (69.1%) completed the interview. For outsourced immunization services, about one-half of participating pharmacies (50.6%) implemented and planned to implement the services while only 20.7% had no interest in offering the services. These percentages contrast sharply with in-house immunization services: 24.7% of pharmacies in this category implemented and planned to implement the services and 38.1% indicated no interest in offering the services. Involvement in immunization services varied widely across the 17 states. For outsourced services, implementation ranged from 17.5% to 68.8% of pharmacies, while 13.5% to 39.3% had no interest in the services. For in-house services, implementation ranged from 0% to 42.1% of pharmacies; 19.6% to 49.5% had no interest.

Conclusion  Understanding stages of pharmacy involvement in immunization services should allow design and implementation of more effective strategies for increasing involvement and decreasing abandonment of immunization practices.


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