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Research
Evaluation of e-prescribing in chain community pharmacy: Best-practice recommendations
Michael T. Rupp, PhD, BPharm; Terri L. Warholak, PhD, BPharm
J Am Pharm Assoc (2003) 2008;48:364-370. doi:10.1331/JAPhA.2008.07031

Abstract

Objectives  To measure the attitudes and beliefs of community-based pharmacists and technicians toward electronic prescribing (e-prescribing) and the processing of e-prescriptions and to generate best-practice recommendations for changes to improve e-prescribing in the community setting.

Design  Descriptive, nonexperimental, cross-sectional study.

Setting  422 chain community pharmacies in six states that met a minimum dispensing volume of five e-prescriptions per day. Data were collected between April and July 2006.

Participants  Pharmacists, technicians, and student interns.

Intervention  Receiving, processing, and dispensing of e-prescriptions assessed via self-administered survey and follow-up interviews of key pharmacy operations and information technology management in each participating chain pharmacy organization.

Main outcome measures  Attitudes, beliefs, and satisfaction of pharmacy personnel regarding e-prescribing, compared with conventional prescribing, and recommendations for improving e-prescribing in the community practice setting.

Results  1,094 surveys were returned from pharmacy personnel practicing in 276 chain community pharmacies. Pharmacy personnel preferred e-prescriptions over conventional prescriptions on each of seven desired outcomes of care. Pharmacists were found to view e-prescribing more positively than technicians (P < 0.05) for its net effect on three key outcomes: patient safety, effectiveness of care, and efficiency of care. A total of 2,235 written comments were received on the returned surveys. Of these, 57% (1,277) mentioned negative features of e-prescribing, while 43% (958) noted positive features. Improved clarity and/or legibility of prescriptions was the most frequently cited advantage of e-prescribing, followed closely by improved speed or efficiency of processing. Prescribing errors were the most commonly cited negative feature of e-prescribing, particularly those stating a wrong drug or wrong directions.

Conclusion  Pharmacy personnel were generally satisfied with the current status of e-prescribing, but they also perceive key weaknesses in how it has been implemented in physicians’ practices and their own organizations. A total of 11 best-practice recommendations are offered to improve e-prescribing in the chain community pharmacy setting.

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References

Anderson KJ, Malone PM.  Electronic prescriptions in pharmacy.  Am J Health Syst Pharm.  1999;56:1351–3.[PubMed]
 
Murray MD, Loos B, Tu W, et al. Effects of computer-based prescribing on pharmacist work patterns.  J Am Med Inform Assoc.  1998;5:546–53.[PubMed][CrossRef]
 
Rupp MT.  The impact of e-prescribing on staff productivity in community pharmacy: part 1.  Computer Talk.  2005;25(3):15–22.
 
Rupp MT.  The impact of e-prescribing on staff productivity in community pharmacy: part 2.  Computer Talk.  2005;25(4):14–7.
 
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