0
Special Feature
Pharmacist-provided immunization compensation and recognition: White paper summarizing APhA/AMCP stakeholder meeting
American Pharmacists Association and Academy of Managed Care Pharmacy
J Am Pharm Assoc (2003) 2011;51:704-712. doi:10.1331/JAPhA.2011.11544

Abstract

Objectives  To identify the current challenges and opportunities in compensation and recognition for pharmacist-provided immunizations across the lifespan and to establish guiding principles for pharmacist-provided immunization compensation and recognition.

Data sources  22 stakeholders gathered on June 29, 2011, at the American Pharmacists Association (APhA) headquarters in Washington, DC, for a meeting on immunization compensation that was convened by APhA and the Academy of Managed Care Pharmacy. Participants included representatives from community pharmacy practices (chain, grocery, and independent), employers, national consumer health and advocacy organizations, national pharmacy and public health organizations, health plan representatives, pharmacy benefit managers, and health information technology, standards, and safety organizations. Key immunization leaders from TRICARE Management Activity, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, the National Vaccine Program Office of the Department of Health & Human Services, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) also participated in the meeting.

Summary  The increased numbers of pharmacists providing vaccination services and the availability of pharmacist-provided immunizations to populations in need of vaccines has continued to increase. This has resulted in a rise in the percentage of patients who receive vaccines at pharmacies. Pharmacists are now working to leverage their ability to identify people with key risk factors (e.g., diabetes, heart disease or previous myocardial infarction), encourage them to receive their CDC-recommended vaccinations, and administer the required vaccine. Challenges and opportunities in compensation and recognition for pharmacist-provided immunizations across the adult lifespan persist. Variability in state practice acts, reimbursement and compensation processes and systems, and mechanisms for documentation of vaccine services create substantial differences in how pharmacist-provided immunizations are delivered throughout the United States.

Conclusion  Pharmacist-provided immunizations are clinically sound, are cost effective, are readily accessible, and support our nation's public health goals. Pharmacists have demonstrated that patient vaccination rates have improved through expansion of pharmacist-provided immunizations. The profession should continue efforts to collaborate with other immunization stakeholders and expand a pharmacist scope of practice that is built around a uniform and recognized standard of immunization provision and that supports the provision of all CDC-recommended vaccines through pharmacy-provided immunizations.

Sign In
APhA Members 
Welcome to JAPhA.org! Please log in below using your APhA username and password. Update your APhA profile.
Not a Subscriber
New to JAPhA? Become an APhA member to receive a full subscription to both the print and online editions.

OR

Register for a FREE limited account to benefit from personalization features such as alerts.

References

American Pharmacists Association.  States where pharmacists can immunize. Accessed at www.pharmacist.com/AM/Template.cfm?Section=Pharmacist_Immunization_Center1&CONTENTID=26046&TEMPLATE=/CM/ContentDisplay.cfm, August 1,  2011
 
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.  Place of influenza vaccination among adults: United States, 2010–11 influenza season.  MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep.  2011;60:781–5. [PubMed]
 
American Pharmacists Association.  Policies adopted by the 1996 APhA House of Delegates.  J Am Pharm Assoc. 1996;NS36:395.
 
American Pharmacists Association.  Guidelines for pharmacy-based immunization advocacy. Accessed at www.pharmacist.com/AM/Template.cfm?Section=Pharmacist_Immunization_Center1&CONTENTID=23553&TEMPLATE=/CM/ContentDisplay.cfm, July 20,  2011.
 
American Pharmacists Association.  Pharmacist administered vaccines. Accessed at www.pharmacist.com/AM/Template.cfm?Section=Pharmacist_Immunization_Center1&TEMPLATE=/CM/ContentDisplay.cfm&CONTENTID=26045, July 12,  2011.
 
National Association of Chain Drug Stores.  Who we are. Accessed at www.nacds.org/wmspage.cfm?parm1=373, August 1,  2011.
 
National Community Pharmacists Association.  NCPA Digest finds independent community pharmacies stable despite economic, third-party challenges. Accessed at www.ncpanet.org/index.php/news-releases/787-ncpa-digest-finds-independent-community-pharmacies-stable-despite-economic-third-party-challenges, August 1,  2011.
 
Ernst ME, Chalstrom CV, Currie D, Sorofman B.  Implementation of a community pharmacy-based influenza vaccination program.  J Am Pharm Assoc. 1997;NS37:570–80.
 
Santibanez TA, Mootrey GT, Euler GL, Janssen AP.  Behavior and beliefs about influenza vaccine among adults aged 50–64 years.  Am J Health Behav.  2010;34:77–89. [PubMed][CrossRef]
 
Singleton JA, Poel AJ, Lu P, et al. Where adults reported receiving influenza vaccination in the United States.  Am J Infect Control.  2005;33:563–70. [PubMed]
 
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,  National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases.  Vaccination coverage among U.S. adults: National Immunization Survey–adult 2007. Accessed at www.cdc.gov/vaccines/stats-surv/nis/downloads/nis-adult-summer-2007.pdf, July 21,  2011.
 
Brown TR.  Handbook of institutional pharmacy practice. 4th ed. Bethesda, MD:  American Society of Health-System Pharmacists;  2006.
 
Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education. Accreditation standards and guidelines for the professional program in pharmacy leading to the Doctor of Pharmacy degree. Accessed at www.acpe-accredit.org/pdf/ACPE_Revised_PharmD_Standards_Adopted_Jan152006.pdf, February 14,  2011.
 
Abel C, Ruddy D, Kober SL, et al. Changing performance among practicing pharmacists through comprehensive educational initiatives.  CE Measure.  2010;4(5):4–9.
 
NOTE:
Citing articles are presented as examples only. In non-demo SCM6 implementation, integration with CrossRef’s "Cited By" API will populate this tab (http://www.crossref.org/citedby.html).
Please read the other comments before you post yours. Comments are moderated and will appear on the site at the discertion of the editorial staff.
* = Required Field
(if multiple authors, separate names by comma)
Example: John Doe



Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.

JAPhA Articles
Topic Collections
Advertisement
 
  • Print
  • PDF Download
  • Email
  • Share
  • Get Citation
  • Submit Comment
  • Article Alerts
    Please Wait... Processing your request... Please Wait.
    You must sign in to sign-up for alerts.

    Please confirm that your email address is correct, so you can successfully receive this alert.

  • Letters To Editor
  • Reprints